tl;dr is internet speak for ‘too long; didn’t read’. It’s probably my favourite semi-colon-based acronym.
I am a huge supporter of thoroughly researched articles, but sometimes you don’t have time to wade through pages of text – no matter how beautifully laid out.
So this post takes the gargantuan Your Questions About Food and Climate Change, Answered: How to shop, cook and eat in a warming world by Julia Moskin, Brad Plumer, Rebecca Lieberman and Eden Weingart (NYT, April 30, 2019) and boils its 3,300 vital words down to less than 1,000.
Does what I eat have an effect on climate change?
Yes. Food is responsible for about one-quarter of greenhouse gases we generate.
How exactly does food contribute to global warming?
- Deforestation, to make room for farms and livestock, releases huge amounts of carbon.
- When cows, sheep and goats digest their food, they burp up methane, another potent greenhouse gas.
- Animal manure and rice paddies are also big methane sources.
- Fossil fuels used in the industry.
Which foods have the largest impact?
Meat and dairy, particularly from cows.
Emissions from livestock account for roughly the same as all forms of transportation – including aeroplanes.
Is there a simple food choice I can make that would reduce my climate footprint?
- Eat less beef, lamb and cheese.
- Substitute with pork, chicken, eggs and molluscs.
- Replace with beans, pulses, grains and soy.
How much would changing my diet actually help?
People on a meat-heavy diet could shrink their food-related footprint by at least 33% by becoming vegetarian.
If the average American replaced a third of the beef he or she eats with pork, poultry or legumes, his or her food-related emissions would fall by around 13%.
Dietary changes are often one of the quickest ways to lighten your impact on the planet.
I’m just one person! Can I really make a difference all by myself?
Why does meat have such a big climate impact?
It takes more land, energy and water to produce 1kg of animal protein than it does to produce 1kg of plant protein.
Bacteria in cow and sheep stomachs create methane, a potent greenhouse gas, that is released through burps and flatulence.
Does it matter how the cows are raised?
Yes. If the Amazon is being cut down, that’s really bad.
What about grass-fed beef?
The jury’s out.
What about chicken?
Chicken usually produces far fewer emissions than beef and a bit fewer than pork.
Should humans stop eating meat altogether?
What about ‘fake meat’?
The jury’s still out. Looks promising, though.
Are there other ways meat could become more climate-friendly?
Yes, and there’s a lot of room for further improvement.
What kinds of seafood should I eat?
- Wild fish: anchovies, sardines, herring, tuna, pollock, cod, haddock.
- Mollusks: clams, oysters and scallops.
Warning: wild shrimp and lobster can have a larger climate impact than chicken or pork.
Huge caveat: most fisheries are being fished at their maximum sustainable level, while others are being overexploited.
Is farmed seafood a good long-term plan?
Depends. With tight environmental regulation (e.g. Norway), farmed fish can have relatively low impact. But that’s not what’s happening everywhere (e.g. Southeast Asia, China).
How do I know whether a farmed fish is good or bad?
It’s tough. There is a lot of variation from farm to farm.
So what’s the single best choice I can make about seafood?
- Eat more mollusks.
- Check your fish is certified sustainable.
[That’s two choices, ed.]
How much impact do milk and cheese have on climate change?
Milk (including yoghurt, and cottage or cream cheese) typically has a smaller climate footprint than chicken, eggs or pork per kilo.
Many other types of cheese (Cheddar, mozzarella) can have a significantly bigger footprint than chicken or pork, since it typically takes about 10 kilos of milk to make one kilo of cheese.
Wait – cheese might be worse than chicken?
Depends on the cheese, but yes.
Are some kinds of milk better than others? I pay a lot more for organic milk.
The jury’s still out.
Which nondairy milk is best?
Almond, rice, oat and soy milk all have a smaller greenhouse gas footprint than cow’s.
So are you saying I should become a vegan?
A vegan diet does have the smallest climate footprint around.
I don’t like vegan food. What should I eat?
Look again at your definition of ‘vegan food’.
I don’t think I can go completely vegan. What else can I try?
- Eat less meat and dairy, and more protein-rich plants like beans, legumes, nuts and grains.
- Go vegetarian: no meat, poultry and fish, but dairy and eggs are allowed.
- Go pescatarian: add seafood to a vegetarian diet.
- Partly replace meat and dairy with plants.
- Replace beef and lamb with other meat.
Is organic produce really better than conventionally grown produce?
Jury’s out, in terms of climate impact.
Should I worry about whether my produce is local and seasonal?
Transportation is only about 6% of food’s total climate footprint, so don’t over worry. Avoid produce that’s perishable and needs to be flown between distant places.
Is food waste a big part of the climate change problem?
How can I reduce my food waste?
- Plan your meals.
- Don’t order more food than you can eat at restaurants.
- Use a freezer.
- Ignore ‘sell by’ dates.
Should I be composting?
Ideally, yes – it cuts methane emissions.
Should I use paper or plastic bags?
Don’t freak out. Packaging makes up only about 5% of global food-related emissions.
Does recycling really do anything?
It can help, though it’s not as effective as reducing waste in the first place.
Why aren’t there labels in the grocery store explaining the carbon footprint of different foods?
It’d take a fair bit of effort.
- Beef, lamb and cheese tend to do the most climate damage. Pork, chicken and eggs are in the middle. Plants of all kinds typically have the lowest impact.
- What you eat matters a lot more than whether it’s local or organic, or what kind of bag you use to carry it home.
- Small shifts help too. Eat less meat and more plants, or switch from beef to chicken.
- Waste less.